About the region
A short historical reference
Vinnitsa. The origin of the name of the regional center is not fully clarified. It is believed that it took its name from the river of Vinnychka, a tributary of the Southern Bug. The other historians say that we should speak and write Vinnitsa, but not Vinnitsa. That is, this name comes from distilleries, wine cellars that have been here in antiquity, although this was nowhere mentioned in the chronicles.
Most researchers believe that the name originates from the Old Slavic word "vno" - the dowry. In fact, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Olgierd, capturing the territory of Podillya, was generously handing out the lands to the feudal lords. Vinnitsa went to the brothers Koriatovich, Olgierd’s nephews. Vinnitsa was first mentioned as a fortress in 1363 in the historical chronicles.
In the eighties of the XVI century, on the island of Kemp, another castle was built. The town was building and growing at that time. The buildings on the right bank were called The New Town and the district of old fortress and the surrounding area is still called The Old Town.
In the XII century, the northern part of modern Vinnitsa region was the part of the so-called Bolohivska land. At the time of the Mongol invasion, the name "Podillya" appeared, which was used initially to the Podnistrovia district and later to the average Pobozhzhia because both areas came into a Tatar ulus, which was named Podilsk.
After the Battle on the Blue Waters (1362), Podillya became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as a separate administrative unit - the Podillya land. In 1434, the Podolsk province in the Polish Kingdom was created. Its eastern border with Grand Duchy of Lithuania was passed along the Murafa River. In XV century, Podillya was the part of Duchy of Kiev, but in the first half of the XVI century, it was the part of Duchy of Volyn. Only in 1566, The Bratslav province of three counties was created - Bratslav, Vinnitsa and Zvenigorod. In 1569, In Lublin Uniate Diet, The Bratslav province was transferred to Poland, within which was up to 1793.
In the years of 1672-1699, The Bratslav province was a part of the Rus principality. The resolution of the Sejm of Rzecz Pospolita (the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) from November 2, 1791 approved the new administrative division of Bratslav province in four districts: Vinnitsa, Bratslav, Nadbuzkyy (centered in the city Granov) and Zvenigorod. However, this division has not been implemented.
In the second half of XVI - the first half of XVII century, there was a big number of economic growth of many cities: Sharhorod, Mogyliv, Lityn, Tulchyn and others. 30-40 years of XVII century in the history of Vinnitsa was a period of significant economic and cultural development.
In 1640, Vinnitsa got the right to have its own seal and emblem. Two swords and two fishing rods were depicted at the emblem of the city.
Being the part of Lithuania, and later the part of Rzecz Pospolita, fortress walls of Vinnitsa witnessed many violent battles.
There was a huge amount of the most difficult battles on the territory of Podillya. Batih near Ladyzhin, Zhvanets on the Dniester, Busha near Yampol were not only the witnesses, but also participants of the heroic epic, when the blood from the battlefields flowed into the Black Sea.
Many significant events of the liberation war of Ukrainian people in 1648-1654 were also closely related to Vinnitsa. Under the leadership of the national commander Maxim Kryvonos in July 7, 1648, the rebels liberated the city from the Polish troops.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky visited Vinnitsa. The hetman stayed here for the first time in November 1649, when he returned from the Zborov and again - in December 1654, leaving the council to Pereiaslav.
On the Pereiaslav Council on January 8, 1654, Ukraine was joined to Moscow within the limits, set by the (Зборовським) Agreement. There were people in the Cossack environment that did not want to obey Moscow Tsar. There was ataman Sirko and a colonel Bohun among these brave patriots.
The Liberation War did not bring the desired freedom to Podillya. It was under Polish oppression, then under Turkish, than again almost a hundred years it suffered from the power of the Polish gentry. It was only after 1793, when the Right-Bank Ukraine was joined to Russia; Vinnitsa became the centre of Bratslav province and with the formation of Podillya province in 1797 - the centre of the Vinnitsa district.
The internal administrative structure of Bratslav province existed since its inception (March 1793 - February 1796). The grand opening of Bratslav province was on 20 of February (old style), 1796 in Vinnitsa. On May 1 (old style), 1796, there was the opening of Podolsk province, centered in Kamenetz-Podilskyy.
Russian Tsar Paul I issued a decree on December 12 (old style), 1796 created from "the previous Podillya Ukraine, Volyn and Podillya" two provinces - Volyn and Podolsk, and highlighted the relevant part of the territory for the Kyiv province.
In 1801, the border provinces were divided into two military governorships:
1) Kiev with Minsk;
2) Podillya with Volyn.
After the reform of 1861, the administrative-territorial division into the volosts (small rural district) was introduced in Tsarist Russia. There were 376 volosts in Podillya province in 1863.
The division into the volosts existed until 1923, when the districts were formed.
In 1871, the railway line Kyiv-Odessa-Balta was built; it laid through Koziatyn, Vinnitsa, Zhmerynka. This contributed to a significant development of the town and its building up. In 1897, the Vinnitsa population was over 30 thousand people.
In 1880, the construction of the iron-foundry plant "Hammer'' finished. The seed and superphosphate factories, the footwear factory "Hawk" started working. The trade was developing. In 1881, the Vinnitsa bank was opened.
A significant event for the Vinnitsa was the discovery of cultural institutions: National House (1902) and City Theatre (1910). In 1911, the building of the City Council at the Post Street was finished. In 1912, the construction of one of the most original buildings of the city - the hotel "Savoy" - now it is "Ukraine", was completed. It was equipped with the central heating, the water and electric lift, which was a rare thing at that time.
In 1912, the tram connections were laid from the center to Zamosc. The telephone station began working; the city park was founded.
Since 1917, the centre of Podillya province moved from Kamjanets-Podilskyy to Vinnytsia and stays there until the liquidation of the province in 1925.
By order of the UCEC (Ukrainian Central Executive Committee) on January 31, 1923, was the beginning of the Soviet administrative-territorial reform in Podillya. Thus, by the decision of the UCEC on March 7, 1923, "About the administrative-territorial division of Podillya province", the powiats were abolished, and instead, six okrugs were established:
1) Vinnitsa - from 18 districts;
2) Haysyn - from 14 districts;
3) Kamenetz-Podilskyy - from 17 districts;
4) Mogyliv-Podilskyy - from 15 districts;
5) Proskuriv- 16 districts;
6) Tulchyn - from 13 districts.
Since February 1931 in Ukraine 119 regions, including 12 in the Vinnytsia region were liquidated.
According to the resolution of IV Extraordinary Session of UCEC of the XII convocation on February 9, 1932, 5 regions were created in Ukraine: Kharkiv, Kiev, Vinnitsa, Dnepropetrovsk and Odessa.
The Vinnitsa region was formed on February 27, 1932 by the resolution of the IV Extraordinary Session of the UCEC of the XII convocation. The group included 69 districts of modern Khmelnytskyy, Vinnitsa and Zhitomyr regions.
The region included 73 administrative and territorial units: 2 towns (Vinnitsa and Berdichev) and 71 districts.
On April 4, 1934, the Old Town rural council was liquidated, the Old Town was connected to the Vinnitsa town.
In 1937 with the formation of the Kamjanets-Podilskyy and Zhytomyr regions, a big part of districts of Vinntsa region went there ( the okrugs were eliminated). Two councils of regional subordination were left in the Vinnytsia region (Vinnitsa and Mogyliv-Podilskyy) and 42 districts.
On March 20, 1946, the Dzhuryn district was formed. In January 1954, the Monastyrische district was transferred to the newly Cherkasy region. During the 1957-1959 and in 1962, Bratslav, Voronovytsia, Dashiv, Dzhulyn, Dzhuryn, Komsomolsk, Kopayhorod, Obodivka, Olhopil, Plyskiv, Samhorod, Sytkovets, Stanislavchyk, Turbov, Ulaniv, Chernivtsi, Shpykiv, Yaryshivka regions were liquidated, and rest districts were enlarged to 13.
In 1965-1966, 12 districts were restored, in 1979 - 1 more, and in 1987 - 1 more.
Today Vinnytsa region is composed of 27 districts, 18 towns, 29 urban-type settlement, 1457 villages.